Times: 55 minutes
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question. Then, on your ‘answer sheet, find the number
of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
Read the following passage:
The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to
draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modem society would begin to unravel.
What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) In modem society we must make more time for our neighbors.
(B) The traditions of society are timeless.
(C) An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
(D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.
The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is to be measured in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose (C).
In line 5, the phrase “this tradition” refers to
(A) the practice of starting the business day at dawn
(B) friendly relations between neighbors
(C) the railroad’s reliance on time schedules
(0) people’s agreement on the measurement of time
The phrase “this tradition” refers to the preceding clause, “people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day.” Therefore, you should choose (D).
Now begin work on the questions.
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Question 1- 8
With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of
modem sculpture in the United States. Direct carving – in which the sculptors
themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel – must be recognized as
line something more than just a technique. Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well:
(5) that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which
sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony. For example,
sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even
dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter.
The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth-century tradition in
(10) which the making of a clay model was considered the creative act and the work was
then turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble.
Neoclassical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily
conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving
the finished marble.
(15) With the turn-of-the-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional
sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new
urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium. Even
as early as the 1880’s and 1890’s, nonconformist European artists were attempting
direct carving. By the second decade of the twentieth century, Americans – Laurent
(20) and Zorach most notably – had adopted it as their primary means of working.
Born in France, Robert Laurent (1890-197Q) was a prodigy who received his
education in the United States. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art
dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered
primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker.
(25) Back in New York City by 1910, Laurent began carving pieces such as The
Priestess, which reveals his fascination with African, pre-Columbian, and South
Pacific art. Taking a walnut plank, the sculptor carved the expressive, stylized design.
It is one of the earliest examples of direct carving in American sculpture. The plank’s
form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its irregular shape must
have appealed to Laurent as a break with a long-standing tradition that required a
(30) sculptor to work within a perfect rectangle or square.
1. The word “medium” in line 5 could be used to refer to
2. What is one of the fundamental principles of direct carving?
3. The word “dictates” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
4. How does direct carving differ from the nineteenth-century tradition of sculpture?
5. The word “witnessed” in line 23 is closest in meaning to
6. Where did Robert Laurent learn to carve?
7. The phrase “a break with” in line 30 is closest in meaning to
8. The piece titled The Priestess has all of the following characteristics
Birds that feed in flocks commonly retire together into roosts. The reasons for roosting
communally are not always obvious, but there are some likely benefits. In winter
especially, it is important for birds to keep warm at night and conserve precious food
line reserves. One way to do this is to find a sheltered roost. Solitary roosters shelter in
(5) dense vegetation or enter a cavity – horned larks dig holes in the ground and
ptarmigan burrow into snow banks – but the effect of sheltering is magnified by
several birds huddling together in the roosts, as wrens, swifts, brown creepers,
bluebirds, and anis do. Body contact reduces the surface area exposed to the cold air,
so the birds keep each other warm. Two kinglets huddling together were found to
(10) reduce their heat losses by a quarter, and three together saved a third of their heat.
The second possible benefit of communal roosts is that they act as “information
centers.” During the day, parties of birds will have spread out to forage over a very
large area. When they return in the evening some will have fed well, but others may
have found little to eat. Some investigators have observed that when the birds set out
(15) again next morning, those birds that did not feed well on the previous day appear to
follow those that did. The behavior of common and lesser kestrels may illustrate
different feeding behaviors of similar birds with different roosting habits. The common
kestrel hunts vertebrate animals in a small, familiar hunting ground, whereas the very
similar lesser kestrel feeds on insects over a large area. The common kestrel roosts and
(20) hunts alone, but the lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks, possibly so one bird can
learn from others where to find insect swarms.
Finally, there is safety in numbers at communal roosts since there will always be a
few birds awake at any given moment to give the alarm. But this increased protection is
partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially
(25) vulnerable if they are on the ground. Even those in trees can be attacked by birds of
prey. The birds on the edge are at greatest risk since predators find it easier to catch
small birds perching at the margins of the roost.
9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
10. The word “conserve” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
11. Ptarmigan keep warm in the winter by
12. The word “magnified” in line 6 is closest in meaning to
13. The author mentions kinglets in line 9 as an example of birds that
14. The word “forage” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
15. Which of the following statements about lesser and common kestrels is true?
16. The word “counteracted” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
17. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an advantage derived by birds that huddle together while sleeping?
18. Which of the following is a disadvantage of communal roosts that is mentioned in the passage?
19. The word “they” in line 25 refers to
Question 20 – 30
Before the mid-nineteenth century, people in the United States ate most foods only
in season. Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the
availability of fresh meat, like that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to
prevent spoilage. But in 1810 a French inventor named Nicolas Appert developed the
(5) cooking-and-sealing process of canning. And in the 1850’s an American named Gail
Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk. Canned goods and
condensed milk became more common during the 1860’s, but supplies remained low
because cans had to be made by hand. By 1880, however, inventors had fashioned
stamping and soldering machines that mass-produced cans from tinplate. Suddenly all
(10) kinds of food could be preserved and bought at all times of the year.
Other trends and inventions had also helped make it possible for Americans to vary
their daily diets. Growing urban populations created demand that encouraged fruit and
vegetable farmers to raise more produce. Railroad refrigerator cars enabled growers
and meat packers to ship perishables great distances and to preserve them for longer
(15) periods. Thus, by the 1890’s, northern city dwellers could enjoy southern and western
strawberries, grapes, and tomatoes, previously available for a month at most, for up to
six months of the year. In addition, increased use of iceboxes enabled families to store
perishables. An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invented in the
1870’s, and by 1900 the nation had more than two thousand commercial ice plants,
(20) most of which made home deliveries. The icebox became a fixture in most homes and
remained so until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet. Some people continued to eat
mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could
afford meat. Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously
unavailable fruits, vegetables, and dairy products to achieve more varied fare.
20. What does the passage mainly discuss?
21. The phrase “in season” in line 2 refers to
22. The word “prevent” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
23. During the 1860’s, canned food products were
24. It can be inferred that railroad refrigerator cars came into use
25. The word “them” in line 14 refers to
26. The word “fixture” in line 20 is closest in meaning to
27. The author implies that in the 1920’s and 1930’s home deliveries of ice
28. The word “nevertheless” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
29. Which of the following types of food preservation was NOT mentioned in the passage?
30. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?
Question 31 – 40
The ability of falling cats to right themselves in midair and land on their feet
has been a source of wonder for ages. Biologists long regarded it as an example of
adaptation by natural selection, but for physicists it bordered on the miraculous.
Newton’s laws of motion assume that the total amount of spin of a body cannot
(5) change unless an external torque speeds it up or slows it down. If a cat has no spin
when it is released and experiences no external torque, it ought not to be able lo
twist around as it falls.
In the speed of its execution, the righting of a tumbling cat resembles a
magician’s trick. The gyrations of the cat in midair are too fast for the human eye to
(10) follow, so the process is obscured. Either the eye must be speeded up, or the cat’s
fall slowed down for the phenomenon to be observed. A century ago the former was
accomplished by means of high-speed photography using equipment now available
in any pharmacy. But in the nineteenth century the capture on film of a falling cat
constituted a scientific experiment.
(15) The experiment was described in a paper presented to the Paris Academy in
1894.Two sequences of twenty photographs each, one from the side and one from
behind, show a white cat in the act of righting itself. Grainy and quaint though they
are, the photos show that the cat was dropped upside down, with no initial spin and
still landed on its feet. Careful analysis of the photos reveals the secret: As the cat
(20) rotates the front of its body clockwise, the rear and tail twist counterclockwise, so that
the total spin remains zero, in perfect accord with Newton’s laws. Halfway down, the
cat pulls in its legs before reversing its twist and then extends them again, with the
desired end result. The explanation was that while no body can acquire spin without
torque, a flexible one can readily change its orientation, or phase. Cats know this
(25) instinctively, but scientists could not be sure how it happened until they increased the
speed of their perceptions a thousandfold.
31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
32. The word “process” in line 10 refers to
33. Why are the photographs mentioned in line 16 referred to as an “experiment”?
34. Which of the following can be inferred about high-speed photography in the late 1800’s?
35. The word “rotates” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
36. According to the passage, a cat is able to right itself in midair because it is
37. The word “readily” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
38. How did scientists increase “the speed of their perceptions a thousandfold” (lines 25-26)?
39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
40. According to the passage, the population of the United States was first classified as rural or urban in
Question 41 – 50
The changing profile of a city in the United States is apparent in the shifting
definitions used by the United States Bureau of the Census. In 1870 the census
officially distinguished the nation’s “urban” from its “rural” population for the first
time. “Urban population” was defined as persons living in towns of 8,000 inhabitants
(5) or more. But after 1900 it meant persons living in incorporated places having 2,500 or
Then, in 1950 the Census Bureau radically changed its definition of urban to take
account of the new vagueness of city boundaries. In addition to persons living in
incorporated units of 2,500 or more, the census now included those who lived in
(10) unincorporated units of that size, and also all persons living in the densely settled urban
fringe, including both incorporated and unincorporated areas located around cities of
50,000 inhabitants or more. Each such unit, conceived as an integrated economic and
social unit with a large population nucleus, was named a Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area (SMSA).
(15) Each SMSA would contain at least (a) one central city with 50,000 inhabitants or
more or (b) two cities having shared boundaries and constituting, for general economic
and social purposes, a single community with a combined population of at least 50,000,
the smaller of which must have a population of at least 15,000. Such an area would
include the county in which the central city was located, and adjacent counties that
(20) were found to be metropolitan in character and economically and socially integrated
with the county of the central city. By 1970, about two-thirds of the population of the
United States was living in these urbanized areas, and of that figure more than half
were living outside the central cities.
While the Census Bureau and the United States government used the term SMSA
(25) (by 1969 there were 233 of them), social scientists were also using new terms to
describe the elusive, vaguely defined areas reaching out from what used to be simple
“towns” and “cities.” A host of terms came into use: “metropolitan regions,” “polynucleated
population groups,” “conurbations,” “metropolitan clusters,” “megalopolises” and so on.
41. The word “distinguished” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
42. Prior to 1900, how many inhabitants would a town have to have before being defined as urban?
43. According to the passage, why did the Census Bureau revise the definition of urban in 1950?
44. The word “those” in line 9 refers to
45. The word “constituting” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
46. The word “which” in line 18 refers to a smaller
47. Which of the following is NOT true of an SMSA?
48. By 1970, what proportion of the population in the United States did NOT live in an SMSA?
49. The Census Bureau first used the term “SMSA” in
50. Where in the passage does the author mention names used by social scientists for an urban area?