STRUCTURE E-1

Time: 25 minutes.

This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section, with special directions for each type.

Structure Directions: Questions 1-15 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (0). Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen.

Example I

Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes ——they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth’s surface.

(A) due to
(B) because
(C) in spite of
(D) regardless of

The sentence should read, “Geysers have often been compared to volcanoes because they both emit hot liquids from below the Earth’s surface.” Therefore, you should choose (B).

Example II

During the early period of ocean navigation, —–any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques.

(A) so that hardly
(B) when there hardly was
(C) hardly was
(D) there was hardly

The sentence should read, “During the early period of ocean navigation, there was hardly any need for sophisticated instruments and techniques.” Therefore, you should choose (D).

Written Expression

Directions: In questions 16-40 each sentence has four underlined words or phrases. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Example I 

Guppies are sometimes call rainbow fish because of the males’ bright colors.

The sentence should read, “Guppies are sometimes called rainbow fish because of the males’ bright colors.” Therefore, you should choose (A).

Example II

Serving several term in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States politician.

The sentence should read, “Serving several terms in Congress, Shirley Chisholm became an important United States politician.” Therefore, you should choose (B)

Now begin work on the questions.