Times: 55 minutes
Directions: In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to each question. Then, on your ‘answer sheet, find the number
of the question and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.
Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
Read the following passage:
The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to
draw attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants
have set out their wares at daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated,
people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day. The
value of this tradition is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public
acceptance of a single yardstick of time, social life would be unbearably chaotic:
the massive daily transfers of goods, services, and information would proceed in
fits and starts; the very fabric of modem society would begin to unravel.
What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) In modem society we must make more time for our neighbors.
(B) The traditions of society are timeless.
(C) An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
(D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.
The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is to be measured in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose (C).
In line 5, the phrase “this tradition” refers to
(A) the practice of starting the business day at dawn
(B) friendly relations between neighbors
(C) the railroad’s reliance on time schedules
(D) people’s agreement on the measurement of time
The phrase “this tradition” refers to the preceding clause, “people have been in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day.” Therefore, you should choose (D).
Now begin work on the questions.
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Question 1- 7
Hotels were among the earliest facilities that bound the United States together. They
were both creatures and creators of communities, as well symptoms of the frenetic
quest for community. Even in the first part of the nineteenth century, Americans were
already forming the habit of gathering from all corners of the nation for both public and
(5) private, business and pleasure, purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and
hotels were distinctively American facilities making conventions possible. The first
national convention of a major party to choose a candidate for President (that of the
National Republican party, which met on December 12, 1831, and nominated Henry
Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that was then reputed to be the
(10) best in the country. The presence in Baltimore of Barnum’s City Hotel, a six-story
building with two hundred apartments, helps explain why many other early national
political conventions were held there.
In the longer run, American hotels made other national conventions not only
possible but pleasant and convivial. The growing custom of regularly assembling from
(15) afar the representatives of all kinds of groups – not only for political conventions, but
also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocations ones – in turn supported
the multiplying hotels. By the mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted for over a
third of the yearly room occupancy of all hotels in the nation; about eighteen thousand
different conventions were held annually with a total attendance of about ten million
Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, who were no longer the genial,
deferential “hosts” of the eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens.
Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised power to make it prosper. As
owners or managers of the local “palace of the public,” they were makers and shapers
(25) of a principal community attraction. Travelers from abroad were mildly shocked by this
high social position.
1. The word “bound” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
2. The National Republican party is mentioned in line 8 as an example of a group
3. The word “assembling” in line 14 is closest in meaning to
4. The word “ones” in line 16 refers to
5. The word “it” in line 23 refers to
6. It can be inferred from the passage that early hotelkeepers in the United States were
7. Which of the following statements about early American hotels is NOT mentioned in the passage?
Beads were probably the first durable ornaments humans possessed, and the
intimate relationship they had with their owners is reflected in the fact that beads are
among the most common items found in ancient archaeological sites. In the past, as
today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures
(5) still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their
owners for the afterlife. Abrasion due to daily wear alters the surface features of beads,
and if they are buried for long, the effects of corrosion can further change their
appearance. Thus, interest is imparted to the bead both by use and the effects of time.
Besides their wearability, either as jewelry or incorporated into articles of attire,
(10) beads possess the desirable characteristics of every collectible: they are durable,
portable, available in infinite variety, and often valuable in their original cultural
context as well as in today’s market. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in
shapes, colors, and materials that almost compel one to handle them and to sort them.
Beads are miniature bundles of secrets waiting to be revealed: their history,
(15) manufacture, cultural context, economic role, and ornamental use are all points of
information one hopes to unravel. Even the most mundane beads may have traveled
great distances and been exposed to many human experiences. The bead researcher
must gather information from many diverse fields. In addition to having to be a
generalist while specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field, the researcher is
(20) faced with the problem of primary materials that have little or no documentation. Many
ancient beads that are of ethnographic interest have often been separated from their
original cultural context.
The special attractions of beads contribute to the uniqueness of bead research. While
often regarded as the “small change of civilizations,” beads are a part of every culture,
(25) and they can often be used to date archaeological sites and to designate the degree of
mercantile, technological, and cultural sophistication.
8. What is the main subject of the passage?
9. The word “adorned” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
10. The word “attire” in line 9 is Closest in meaning to
11. All of the following are given as characteristics of collectible objects EXCEPT
12. According to the passage, all of the following are factors that make people want to touch beads EXCEPT the
13. The word “unravel” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
14. The word “mundane” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
15. It is difficult to trace the history of certain ancient beads because they
16. Knowledge of the history of some beads may be useful in the studies done by which of the following?
17. Where in the passage does the author describe why the appearance beads may change?
In the world of birds, bill design is a prime example of evolutionary fine-tuning.
Shorebirds such as oystercatchers use their bills to pry open the tightly sealed shells of
their prey; hummingbirds have stiletto-like bills to probe the deepest nectar-bearing
flowers; and kiwis smell out earthworms thanks to nostrils located at the tip of their
(5) beaks. But few birds are more intimately tied to their source of sustenance than are
crossbills. Two species of these finches, named for the way the upper and lower parts
of their bills cross, rather than meet in the middle, reside in the evergreen forests of
North America and feed on the seeds held within the cones of coniferous trees.
The efficiency of the bill is evident when a crossbill locates a cone. Using a lateral
(10) motion of its lower mandible, the bird separates two overlapping scales on the cone and
exposes the seed. The crossed mandibles enable the bird to exert a powerful biting
force at the bill tips, which is critical for maneuvering them between the scales and
spreading the scales apart. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and
draws out the seed. Using the combined action of the bill and tongue, the bird cracks
(15) open and discards the woody seed covering and swallows the nutritious inner kernel.
This whole process takes but a few seconds and is repeated hundreds of times a day.
The bills of different crossbill species and subspecies vary – some are stout and
deep, others more slender and shallow. As a rule, large-billed crossbills are better at
securing seeds from large cones, while small-billed crossbills are more deft at
(20) removing the seeds from small, thin-scaled cones. Moreover, the degree to which cones
are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helps determine which bill design is the
One anomaly is the subspecies of red crossbill known as the Newfoundland
crossbill. This bird has a large, robust bill, yet most of Newfoundland’s conifers have
(25) small cones, the same kind of cones that the slender-billed white-wings rely on.
18. What does the passage mainly discuss?
19. Which of the following statements best represents the type of “evolutionary fine-tuning” mentioned in line 1?
20. Why does the author mention oystercatchers, hummingbirds, and kiwis in lines 2-4?
21. Crossbills are a type of
22. Which of the following most closely resembles the bird described in lines 6-8?
23. The word “which” in line 12 refers to
24. The word “gap” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
25. The word “discards” in line 15 is closest in meaning to
26. The word “others” in line 18 refers to
27. The word “deft” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
28. The word “robust” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
29. In what way is the Newfoundland crossbill an anomaly?
30. The final paragraph of the passage will probably continue with a discussion of
31. Where in the passage does the author describe how a crossbill removed a seed from its cone?
If you look closely at some of the early copies of the Declaration or Independence,
beyond the flourished signature of John Hancock and the other fifty-five men who
signed it, you will also find the name of one woman, Mary Katherine Goddard. It was
she, a Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the Declaration, the
(5) first copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of
all thirteen colonies.
Mary Goddard first got into printing at the age of twenty-four when her brother
opened a printing shop in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1762. When he proceeded to
get into trouble with his partners and creditors. it was Mary Goddard and her mother
(10) who were left to run the shop. In 1765 they began publishing the Providence Gazette, a
weekly newspaper. Similar problems seemed to follow her brother as he opened
businesses in Philadelphia and again in Baltimore. Each time Ms. Goddard was
brought in to run the newspapers. After starting Baltimore’s first newspaper, The
Maryland Journal, in 1773, her brother went broke trying to organize a colonial postal
(15) service. While he was in debtor’s prison, Mary Katherine Goddard’s name appeared on
the newspaper’s masthead for the first time.
When the Continental Congress fled there from Philadelphia in 1776, it
commissioned Ms. Goddard to print the first official version of the Declaration of
Independence in January 1777. After printing the documents, she herself paid the post
(20) riders to deliver the Declaration throughout the colonies.
During the American Revolution, Mary Goddard continued to publish Baltimore’s
only newspaper, which one historian claimed was “second to none among the
colonies.” She was also the city’s Postmaster from 1775 to 1789 – appointed by
Benjamin Franklin – and is considered to be the first woman to hold a federal position.
32. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
33. Mary Goddard’s name appears on the Declaration of Independence because
34. The word “heralded” in line 5 is closest in meaning to
35. According to the passage, Mary Goddard first became involved in publishing when she
36. The word “there” in line 17 refers to
37. It can be inferred from the passage that Mary Goddard was
38. The word “position” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
Galaxies are the major building blocks of the universe. A galaxy is a giant family of
many millions of stars, and it is held together by its own gravitational field. Most of the
material universe is organized into galaxies of stars, together with gas and dust.
There are three main types of galaxy: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. The Milky
(5) Way is a spiral galaxy: a flattish disc of star with two spiral arms emerging from its
central nucleus. About one-quarter of all galaxies have this shape. Spiral galaxies are
well supplied with the interstellar gas in which new stars form; as the rotating spiral
pattern sweeps around the galaxy it compresses gas and dust, triggering the formation
of bright young stars in its arms. The elliptical galaxies have a symmetrical elliptical or
(10) spheroidal shape with no obvious structure. Most of their member stars are very old
and since ellipticals are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them.
The biggest and brightest galaxies in the universe are ellipticals with masses of about
1013 times that of the Sun; these giants may frequently be sources of strong radio
emission, in which case they are called radio galaxies. About two-thirds of all galaxies
(15) are elliptical. Irregular galaxies comprise about one-tenth of all galaxies and they come
in many subclasses.
Measurement in space is quite different from measurement on Earth. Some
terrestrial distances can be expressed as intervals of time: the time to fly from one
continent to another or the time it takes to drive to work, for example. By comparison
(20) with these familiar yardsticks, the distances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,
but they too are made more manageable by using a time calibration, in this case, the
distance that light travels in one year. On such a scale the nearest giant spiral galaxy,
the Andromeda galaxy, is two million light years away. The most distant luminous
objects seen by telescopes are probably ten thousand million light years away. Their
(25) light was already halfway here before the Earth even formed. The light from the nearby
Virgo galaxy set out when reptiles still dominated the animal world.
39. The word “major” in line 1 is closest in meaning to
40. What does the second paragraph mainly discuss?
41. The word “which” in line 7 refers to
42. According to the passage, new stars are formed in spiral galaxies due to
43. The word “symmetrical” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
44. The word “obvious” in line 10 is closest in meaning to
45. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of elliptical galaxies?
46. Which of the following characteristics of radio galaxies is mentioned in the passage?
47. What percentage of galaxies is irregular?
48. The word “they” in line 21 refers to
49. Why does the author mention the Virgo galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy in the third paragraph?
50. The word “dominated” in line 26 is closest in meaning to